Internal And External Respiration Assignment Of Benefits

Asthma

Bronchial Asthma is the condition of subjects with widespread narrowing of the bronchial airways, which changes in severity over short periods of time (either spontaneously or under treatment) and leads to cough, wheezing, and difficulty in breathing.

Asthma can be precipitated by exposure to one or more of a wide range of stimuli, including allergens, drugs (such as aspirin and other NSAIDs and beta blockers), exertion, emotion, infections, and air pollution.The onset of asthma is usually early in life and in atopic subjects may be accompanied by other manifestations of hypersensitivity, such as hay-fever and dermatitis; however the onset may be delayed into adulthood or even middle or old age.

Treatment is with bronchodilators, with or without corticosteroids, usually administered via aerosol or dyr-powder inhalers, or – if the condition is more severe – via a nebulizer. Oral corticosteroids are reserved for patients who fail to respond adequately to these measures. Severe asthmatic attacks may need large doses of corticosteroids.Avoidance of known allergens, especially the house dust mite, allergens arising from domestic pets, and food additives, will help to reduce the frequency of attacks, as will the discouragement of smoking.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis, also known as simply 'TB', is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis and characterized by the formation of nodular lesions (tubercles) in the tissues.

Bacillus inhaled into the lungs:
In pulmonary tuberculosis – formerly known as consumption and pthisis (wasting – the bacillus is inhaled into the lungs where it sets up a primary tubercle and spreads to the nearest lymph nodes (the primary complex). Natural immune defences may heal it at this stage; alternatively the disease may smoulder for months or years and fluctuate with the patient’s resistance. Many people become infected but show no symptoms. Others develop a chronic infection and can transmit the bacillus by coughing and sneezing.
Bacillus entering by mouth (usually in infected cow’s milk):
Set up a primary complex in the abdominal lymph nodes, leading to peritonitis, and sometimes spread to other organs, joints, and bones.

Symptoms of the active disease include fever, night sweats, weight loss, and the spitting of blood. In some cases the bacilli spread from the lungs to the bloodstream, setting up millions of tiny tubercles throughout the body (military tuberculosis), or migrate to the meninges to cause tuberculous meningitis.

Treatment:
Tuberculosis is curable by various combinations of antibiotics. Preventative measures in the UK include the detection of cases by X-ray screening of vunerable populations and inoculation with BCG vaccine of those with no immunity to the disease.

Table of Contents

What is Photosynthesis? | Leaves and Leaf Structure | The Nature of Light | Chlorophyll and Accessory Pigments

The structure of the chloroplast and photosynthetic membranes| Stages of Photosynthesis |The Light Reactions

Dark Reaction |C-4 Pathway | The Carbon Cycle | Learning Objectives | Terms | Review Questions | Links

What is Photosynthesis?| Back to Top

Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

Leaves and Leaf Structure | Back to Top

Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

(SEM x3,520). This image is copyright Dennis Kunkel at www.DennisKunkel.com, used with permission.

Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

Chlorophyll and Accessory Pigments | Back to Top

Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

The above image is from http://www.nyu.edu:80/pages/mathmol/library/photo.

The above image is from http://www.nyu.edu:80/pages/mathmol/library/photo.

Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

Images from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

The structure of the chloroplast and photosynthetic membranes | Back to Top

Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

Stages of Photosynthesis | Back to Top

Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

Light Reactions | Back to Top

This image is from the University of Minnesota page at http://genbiol.cbs.umn.edu/Multimedia/examples.html.

Images from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

Images from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

Dark Reaction | Back to Top

The above image is from http://www-itg.lbl.gov/ImgLib/COLLECTIONS/BERKELEY-LAB/PEOPLE/INDIVIDUALS/index/BIOCHEM_523.html, Ernest OrlandoLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. " One of the new areas, cultivated both in Donner and the Old Radiation Laboratory, was the study of organic compounds labeled with carbon-14. Melvin Calvin took charge of this work at the end of the war in order to provide raw materials for John Lawrence's researches and for his own study of photosynthesis. Using carbon-14, available in plenty from Hanford reactors, and the new techniques of ion exchange, paper chromatography, and radioautography, Calvin and his many associates mapped the complete path of carbon in photosynthesis. The accomplishment brought him the Nobel prize in chemistry in 1961. (The preceding information was excerpted from the text of the Fall 1981 issue of LBL Newsmagazine.) Citation Caption: LBL News, Vol.6, No.3, Fall 1981 Melvin Calvin shown with some of the apparatus he used to study the role of carbon in photosynthesis."

Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

C-4 Pathway | Back to Top

Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

Images from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates (www.sinauer.com) and WH Freeman (www.whfreeman.com), used with permission.

The Carbon Cycle | Back to Top

Learning Objectives | Back to Top

After completing this chapter you should be able to:

  • Study the general equation for photosynthesis and be able to indicate in which process each reactant is used and each product is produced.
  • List the two major processes of photosynthesis and state what occurs in those sets of reactions.
  • Distinguish between organisms known as autotrophs and those known as heterotrophs as pertains to their modes of nutrition.
  • Explain the significance of the ATP/ADP cycle.
  • Describe the nature of light and how it is associated with the release of electrons from a photosystem.
  • Describe how the pigments found on thylakoid membranes are organized into photosystems and how they relate to photon light energy.
  • Describe the role that chlorophylls and the other pigments found in chloroplasts play to initiate the light-dependent reactions.
  • Describe the function of electron transport systems in the thylakoid membrane.
  • Explain the role of the two energy-carrying molecules produced in the light-dependent reactions (ATP and NADPH) in the light-independent reactions.
  • Describe the Calvin-Benson cycle in terms of its reactants and products.
  • Explain how C-4 photosynthesis provides an advantage for plants in certain environments.
  • Describe the phenomenon of acid rain, and how photosynthesis relates to acid rain and the carbon cycle..

Terms | Back to Top

Review Questions | Back to Top

1. The organic molecule produced directly by photosynthesis is: a) lipids; b) sugar; c) amino acids; d) DNA

2. The photosynthetic process removes ___ from the environment. a) water; b) sugar; c) oxygen; d) chlorophyll; e) carbon dioxide

3. The process of splitting water to release hydrogens and electrons occurs during the _____ process. a) light dependent; b) light independent; c) carbon fixation; d) carbon photophosphorylation; e) glycolysis

4. The process of fixing carbon dioxide into carbohydrates occurs in the ____ process. a) light dependent; b) light independent; c) ATP synthesis; d) carbon photophosphorylation; e) glycolysis

5. Carbon dioxide enters the leaf through ____. a) chloroplasts; b) stomata: c) cuticle; d) mesophyll cells; e) leaf veins

6. The cellular transport process by which carbon dioxide enters a leaf (and by which water vapor and oxygen exit) is ___. a) osmosis; b) active transport; c. co- transport; d) diffusion; e) bulk flow

7. Which of the following creatures would not be an autotroph? a) cactus; b) cyanobacteria; c) fish; d) palm tree; e) phytoplankton

8. The process by which most of the world's autotrophs make their food is known as ____. a) glycolysis; b) photosynthesis; c) chemosynthesis; d) herbivory; e) C-4 cycle

9. The process of ___ is how ADP + P are converted into ATP during the Light dependent process. a) glycolysis; b) Calvin Cycle; c) chemiosmosis;d) substrate-level phosphorylation; e) Kreb's Cycle

10. Once ATP is converted into ADP + P, it must be ____. a) disassembled into components (sugar, base, phosphates) and then ressembled; b) recharged by chemiosmosis; c) converted into NADPH; d) processed by the glycolysis process; e) converted from matter into energy.

11. Generally speaking, the longer the wavelenght of light, the ___ the available energy of that light. a) smaller; b) greater; c) same

12. The section of the electromagnetic spectrum used for photosynthesis is ___. a) infrared; b) ultraviolet; c) x-ray; d) visible light; e) none of the above

13. The colors of light in the visible range (from longest wavelength to shortest) is ___. a) ROYGBIV; b) VIBGYOR; c) GRBIYV; d) ROYROGERS; e) EBGDF

14. The photosynthetic pigment that is essential for the process to occur is ___. a) chlorophyll a; b) chlorophyll b; c) beta carotene; d) xanthocyanin; e) fucoxanthin

15. When a pigment reflects red light, _____. a) all colors of light are absorbed; b) all col;ors of light are reflected; c) green light is reflected, all others are absorbed; d) red light is reflected, all others are absorbed; e) red light is absorbed after it is reflected into the internal pigment molecules.

16. Chlorophyll a absorbs light energy in the ____color range. a) yellow-green; b) red-organge; c) blue violet; d) a and b; e) b and c.

17. A photosystem is ___. a) a collection of hydrogen-pumping proteins; b)a collection of photosynthetic pigments arranged in a thylakjoid membrane; c) a series of electron-accepting proteins arranged in the thylakoid membrane; d. found only in prokaryotic organisms; e) multiple copies of chlorophyll a located in the stroma of the chloroplast.

18. The individual flattened stacks of membrane material inside the chloroplast are known as ___. a) grana; b) stroma; c) thylakoids; d) cristae; e) matrix

19. The fluid-filled area of the chloroplast is the ___. a) grana; b) stroma; c) thylakoids; d) cristae; e) matrix

20. The chloroplast contains all of these except ___. a) grana; b) stroma; c) DNA; d) membranes; e) endoplasmic reticulum

21. The chloroplasts of plants are most close in size to __. a) unfertilized human eggs; b) human cheek cells; c) human nerve cells; d) bacteria in the human mouth; e) viruses

22. Which of these photosynthetic organisms does not have a chloroplast? a) plants; b) red algae; c) cyanobacteria; d) diatoms; e) dinoflagellates

23. The photoelectric effect refers to ____. a) emission of electrons from a metal when energy of a critical wavelength strikes the metal; b) absorbtion of electrons from the surrounding environment when energy of a critical wavelength is nearby; c) emission of electrons from a metal when struck by any wavelength of light; d) emission of electrons stored in the daytime when stomata are open at night; e) release of NADPH and ATP energy during the Calvin Cycvle when light iof a specific wavelength strikes the cell.

24. Light of the green wavelengths is commonly absorbed by which accessory pigment? a) chlorophyll a; b) chlorophyll b; c) phycocyanin; d) beta carotene

25. The function of the electron transport proteins in the thyakoid membranes is ___. a) production of ADP by chemiosmosis; b) production of NADPH by substrate-level phosphorylation; c) pumping of hydrogens into the thylakoid space for later generation of ATP by chemiosmosis; d) pumping of hydrogens into the inner cristae space for later generation of ATP by chemiosmosis; e) preparation of water for eventual incorporation into glucose

26. ATP is known as the energy currency of the cell because ____. a) ATP is the most readily usable form of energy for cells; b) ATP passes energy along in an electron transport chain; c) ATP energy is passed to NADPH; d) ATP traps more energy than is produced in its formation; e) only eukaryotic cells use this energy currency.

27. Both cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation produce ATP. We can infer that the purpose of ATP in photosynthesis is to ____. a) supply hydrogen to the carbohydrate; b) supply carbon to the carbohydrate; c)supply energy that can be used to form a carbohydrate; d) transfer oxygens from the third phosphate group to the carbohydrate molecule; e) convert RuBP into PGA

28. The role of NADPH in oxygen-producing photosynthesis is to ____. a) supply hydrogen to the carbohydrate; b) supply carbon to the carbohydrate; c) supply energy that can be used to form a carbohydrate; d) transfer oxygens from the third phosphate group to the carbohydrate molecule; e) convert RuBP into PGA.

29. The dark reactions require all of these chemicals to proceed except ___. a) ATP; b) NADPH; c) carbon dioxide; d) RUBP; e) oxygen

30. The first stable chemical formed by the Calvin Cycle is _____. a) RUBP; b) RU/18; c) PGA; d) PGAL; e) Rubisco

31. The hydrogen in the carbohydrate produced by the Calvin Cycle comes from ___ a.) ATP; b) NADPH; c) the environment if the pH is very acidic; d) a and b; e) a and c

32. The carbon incorporated into the carbohydrate comes from ___. a) ATP; b) NADPH; c) carbon dioxide; d) glucose; e) organic molecules

33. C-4 photosynthesis is so named because _____. a) it produces a three carbon compound as the first stable product of photosynthesis; b) it produces a four carbon compound as the first stable produc of photosynthesis; c) it produces four ATP and four NADPH molecules for carbon fixation.; d) there are only four steps in this form of carbon fixation into carbohydrate.

Links | Back to Top


Text ©1992, 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2007 by M.J. Farabee, all rights reserved. Use for educational purposes is encouraged.

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Email: mj.farabee@emcmail.maricopa.edu

Chosen Value of the Week 1/30/98

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