Fall of Roman and Han Empires
The Roman and Han Empires were among the greatest empires in the history of the World. Both ruling in the first century of the Common Era, the Han dynasty peaking in the 200s and the Roman Empire in the 400s, these empires showed great military power, strived in economic trade, and their territories covered vast land. So how did these great empires find themselves plummeting to an unfortunate collapse? Although there are many similarities in the reasons for the desecration of these empires, there are also several contrasting reasons for the declines in economic trade, effects of the changing populations, and the failure of the political systems.
The Roman and Han empires equally strived economically in trade. However, decline in trade affected Rome more than Han China. Many Chinese communities were self sufficient, and most trade was carried out between communities. The Roman’s economy relied heavily on trade, and as trade routes became compromised, pirates and bandits began stealing goods from merchants creating a decline in trade and profits. Less trade reduced the amount of taxes going back to the government. In contrast to trade, raising taxes evenly weakened both empires. The Roman and Han Empires raised taxes to support their growing armies. As taxes increased, the poor were unable to pay them. Since rich landowners in both empires were not required to pay taxes, many peasants fled to these landlords for protection. In Rome, this affected trade by making the tax on good go up, creating inflation.
Both the Roman and Han Empires experienced social unrest during their collapse. Peasants became angered with the raise in taxes and started to revolt in China. The Chinese used their military to stop these revolts but soon needed more soldiers. The Han government forced many farmers and others to fight, generating a larger group of angry citizens and producing reluctant warriors. On the other hand, the Romans did not struggle with revolts but instead religion. As the Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, officials tried to eliminate it. They created laws banning Christianity with the consequence being the cruel punishments or death. As a final stitch effort, the emperor declared himself supreme god. Needless to say all plans failed and Christianity continued to spread further fracturing the once powerful empire.
Nomadic invasions pestered both Roman and Han empires. Nomads attacked the outskirts of the large territories creating small settlements. The Romans were attacked by Germanic tribes while Han China suffered attacks from the Huns. These Germanic tribes were superior in military technology and threatened Roman forces. During Caesar’s rule, these nomadic peoples tried to conquer small cities but failed and ultimately settled on the outskirts of the empire. In contrast, the Huns, violent, savage men, led several attacks and defeated several Roman legions. These attacks called for a need of a large army from both empires, but with taxes dropping and the growing lack of good authority, most armies failed.
Many factors played role in the fail of once powerful empires. Both the Roman and Han empires flourished and had a very successful reign. Nonetheless, small mistakes made by the central governments caused huge problems socially, economically and politically. The ultimate failure of these empires can be determined from the outraged citizens, the drastic decline in trade and crops, and the attacks from nomadic peoples as well as corrupted political officials.
Compare Contrast Greek and Roman Art Essay
651 WordsNov 29th, 20103 Pages
Compare Contrast Greek And Roman Art And Architecture
Compare/Contrast Greek and Roman Art and Architecture
Since the onset of Greek and Roman civilizations centuries ago we have seen the art and architectural worlds evolve into what we know them as today. In fact, many of the ancient Greek styles were duplicated by the Romans and modified to suit their needs. We can still see a lot of Greek and Roman influences in the present day, especially in the architectural world. Below I will cite some examples of Greek and Roman pieces of art and a structure from each culture and detail some similarities as well as some contrasting values.
I’d like to begin by comparing some pieces of art. In The Fallen Warrior (Greece) and The Dying Gaul…show more content…
Upon looking at each structure you would immediately notice the use of columns. Albeit the Parthenon’s main weight-bearing elements are the columns whereas the columns used on the Pantheon are more aesthetic than functional. Each of these structures also makes use of a portico that originated in the Greek culture.
Both structures are immense places of worship to the gods. The Parthenon was created for the goddess Athena but over the centuries it changed through a series of hands finally ending up as an ammunition dump for the Turks during a seventeenth century war with the Venetians. The Venetians bombed the building leaving most of it in ruins. The Pantheon was created as a house for sculptures of Roman gods. Enough care was taken throughout the centuries that this structure is still being used for religious functions today.
The Parthenon was a more simplistic and ancient looking design where the Pantheon took on a whole new era. The dome came into play along with the many ornamental features seen on the inside as well as the outside of the Pantheon. The interior contains marble slabs and granite columns. These are accentuated when the sun shifts locations through the oculus in the center of the dome.
These features reaffirm the fact that the Greek culture was to the point as far as balance of mind and body. They created their work meticulously but didn’t overdo it. Their buildings were functional