Ms 21 Solved Assignment 2013 Oscar

Elementary is an American crime drama created by Robert Doherty and loosely based on Sherlock Holmes and other characters appearing in the works of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. The series stars Jonny Lee Miller, Lucy Liu, Aidan Quinn, and Jon Michael Hill and premiered on CBS on September 27, 2012. On May 11, 2015, the series was renewed for a fourth season, which premiered on November 5, 2015.[1] On March 25, 2016, it was renewed for a fifth season, which premiered on October 2, 2016. On May 13, 2017, it was renewed for a sixth season of 13 episodes, which was later extended to 21 episodes.[2]

As of May 21, 2017,[update] 120 episodes of Elementary have aired, concluding the fifth season.

Series overview[edit]

SeasonEpisodesOriginally aired
First airedLast aired
124September 27, 2012 (2012-09-27)May 16, 2013 (2013-05-16)
224September 26, 2013 (2013-09-26)May 15, 2014 (2014-05-15)
324October 30, 2014 (2014-10-30)May 14, 2015 (2015-05-14)
424November 5, 2015 (2015-11-05)May 8, 2016 (2016-05-08)
524October 2, 2016 (2016-10-02)May 21, 2017 (2017-05-21)
621[2]April 30, 2018 (2018-04-30)[3]TBA

Episodes[edit]

Season 1 (2012–13)[edit]

No.
overall
No. in
season
TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air dateU.S. viewers
(millions)
11"Pilot"Michael CuestaRobert DohertySeptember 27, 2012 (2012-09-27)13.41[4]
Joan Watson (Lucy Liu) is hired to be the sober companion of Sherlock Holmes (Jonny Lee Miller). When she goes to meet her new companion, she finds that he escaped from rehab the day of his release. When she meets him, he takes her on the subway to a house in Manhattan; he explains that before he began using drugs he used to work for Scotland Yard as a consultant to help solve homicides. He works on the case of a woman who was attacked, and supposedly kidnapped, only to find that she was hidden in a safe room in the apartment. The next day, Sherlock finds that the killer is most likely a serial killer, finding similarities to another case, except that this victim survived. After interviewing the woman, Sherlock and Joan find that she knew the man who attacked her. When Sherlock calls NYPD Captain Thomas Gregson (Aidan Quinn) with his newest lead, Gregson reveals that they are at the suspect's house, and that said suspect has committed suicide. Joan and Sherlock fight, due to his lack of trust and sharing regarding his past before drugs and his mysterious personal life, resulting in her saying she will request another companion assignment. Sherlock concludes that the victim's husband, a psychiatrist plotted to have her killed by giving his patient pills that would make him violent, then sending him after his wife. There was a pre-nuptial agreement and he would have received the money if his wife were to die.
22"While You Were Sleeping"John David ColesRobert DohertyOctober 4, 2012 (2012-10-04)11.13[5]
Sherlock and Joan investigate the murders of two illegitimate children of a wealthy businessman, but matters are complicated when a witness identifies a woman in a coma—and the man's legitimate daughter—as the murderer. The first break in the case was the recognition of a corneal disease in the two victims. Sherlock races to find other potential victims while under suspicion of harassing witnesses and being watched by the police. Sherlock tricks the legitimate daughter into breaking into a building held by the NYPD, leading to her arrest. Sherlock is also introduced to, and begins working with, NYPD Detective Marcus Bell (Jon Michael Hill).
33"Child Predator"Rod HolcombPeter BlakeOctober 18, 2012 (2012-10-18)10.91[6]
Sherlock and Joan investigate a child abduction case which involves a serial killer known as the "Balloon Man", whose name comes from the fact that balloons are left at each of his crime scenes. Matters get complicated when the Balloon Man's first victim from 2005, Adam Kemper (Johnny Simmons) is caught by the police. Sherlock deduces that Adam has Stockholm syndrome and sympathizes with him to help find the killer. The Balloon Man is identified as Samuel Abbott, but Abbott commits suicide, allowing for the release of his most recent victim. Sherlock investigates Abbott's home and finds evidence leading to his realization that Adam is in fact the Balloon Man. Following a brief confrontation with Holmes, Adam gets an immunity deal clearing him from all charges on crimes committed "in consort with Samuel Abbott a.k.a. the Balloon Man", but Sherlock is able to arrange for Adam's arrest when he determines that one of the crimes had to have been committed by Adam alone as Abbott was in the hospital when the abduction occurred.
44"Rat Race"Rosemary RodriguezCraig SweenyOctober 25, 2012 (2012-10-25)10.31[7]
In spite of Sherlock's dislike of bankers, he and Joan take on a case that involves a missing Wall Street executive, who turns up dead of an heroin overdose that Sherlock suspects is not accidental. Upon further examination, Sherlock suspects a serial killer is on the loose when he finds he is not the only executive of the company who has suffered a mysterious death. After Sherlock is captured by the killer, Joan is forced to tell Captain Gregson the truth about her job with Sherlock to get Gregson to search for him. Meanwhile, Joan gets roped into a blind date by her friend, but the man has a secret.
55"Lesser Evils"Colin BuckseyLiz FriedmanNovember 1, 2012 (2012-11-01)10.49[9]
While doing research in the hospital morgue, Sherlock stumbles upon a murder that no one else has noticed. According to Sherlock's deductions, someone in the hospital has been killing vulnerable, pain-wracked, near-death patients and making it look like they had died of natural causes. While questioning hospital doctors and staff, evidence begins to mount, and Sherlock realizes that he is chasing an angel of death. Meanwhile, Joan manages to reconnect with an old friend while working with Sherlock at the hospital. While sitting in on a pre-op procedure, she comes to realize that Sherlock is not the only one with an uncanny sense of intuition. Sherlock and Joan uncover several unethical and criminal activities going on at the hospital in the course of their investigation into the murder, and Joan finds out she may be "a better doctor than she is a friend."[8]
66"Flight Risk"David PlattCorinne BrinkerhoffNovember 8, 2012 (2012-11-08)10.90[10]
Sherlock brings Joan to the site of a plane crash on a beach; among the four victims, he deduces that one of them was murdered. Reviewing further evidence including a recording of the sounds heard on the plane prior to the crash, Sherlock comes to the conclusion that sand was used to jam the plane engine and the murder victim was a man who walked in on the perpetrator at work, his corpse then stuffed in a trunk that caused weight imbalance and the plane's subsequent crash. All evidence points to a plane mechanic who is supposedly smuggling cocaine, but further evidence show that the real murderer is the mechanic's boss. Joan, meanwhile, is called to dinner by Sherlock's father, who Sherlock claims would never propose such a thing. Joan meets a man claiming to be Sherlock's father, but his cover falters when he laughs at Joan's reaction to a question about sex. Joan later meets with the man (Roger Rees), a former stage actor and friend of Sherlock named Alistair. Alistair explains to Joan how Sherlock once visited him so high, barely able to speak, muttering a certain name, which Alistair tells Joan. Returning to the brownstone, Joan asks Sherlock who Irene was.
77"One Way to Get Off"Seith MannChristopher SilberNovember 15, 2012 (2012-11-15)10.75[11]
Sherlock assists Captain Gregson with a double homicide investigation that has the same MO as a series of murders from 13 years ago. That case led to the conviction of Wade Crewes, who is still in jail, and gave Gregson his big break in the department. While Gregson tracks leads in an attempt to find a copycat killer, Sherlock starts to wonder if Crewes was guilty in the first place. Against Gregson's wishes, Sherlock digs into the old case in an attempt to learn what actually happened. After being frozen out by Sherlock, Joan pays a visit to his old rehab center in order to learn more about the enigmatic man now in her care.
88"The Long Fuse"Andrew BernsteinJeffrey Paul KingNovember 29, 2012 (2012-11-29)10.46[12]
A bomb explodes in the office building of several young and unassuming business ventures. The first suspect is the person who called the number that triggered the bomb, but when he is quickly cleared the case turns more intriguing. Sherlock learns that the bomb actually went off four years after it was supposed to. Joan encourages Holmes to consider the sponsor who will replace her when she leaves him. Sherlock decides to go with Alfredo (Ato Essandoh), a car thief whom he chooses at random during a meeting. Alfredo decides to train Sherlock on breaking into cars as an addition to his lock-picking hobby.
99"You Do It to Yourself"Phil AbrahamPeter BlakeDecember 6, 2012 (2012-12-06)10.31[13]
An under-the-weather Sherlock investigates the murder of a college professor whose body was found with gunshot wounds through both of his eyes. Using his trademark deductive reasoning, Sherlock retraces the victim's path back to an illicit gambling parlor in Chinatown where he was shot. Gregson is able to bring in the gunman thanks to video surveillance footage, but when the killer claims that he was hired to take out the professor, Sherlock realizes that his work has only just begun. Meanwhile, Joan gets a call from an addict and former lover who is in prison and needs her help.
1010"The Leviathan"Peter WernerCorinne Brinkerhoff & Craig SweenyDecember 13, 2012 (2012-12-13)10.46[14]
When a supposedly uncrackable bank vault called "The Leviathan" is breached for the second time, Sherlock is called in to figure out what went wrong. When the vault was breached for the first time, the heist was committed by a once-in-a-lifetime assembly of world class criminals. Because they went to jail for the crime, the vault company cannot imagine how anyone else got in. When Sherlock learns that not even he can break into the Leviathan, he realizes that the second group of criminals must somehow be connected to the first.
1111"Dirty Laundry"John David ColesLiz Friedman & Christopher SilberJanuary 3, 2013 (2013-01-03)11.44[15]
Sherlock and Joan investigate the murder of the general manager of a high-end Manhattan hotel whose body is found inside an industrial laundry machine. The woman's background and family seems clean, but a call girl soon reveals that their victim may be in some illegal business. Sherlock cracks the case by uncovering use of steganography and discovers just what business the woman is involved in, prompting almost the full mobilization of the police force. Meanwhile, since Joan's time with Sherlock is almost up, he offers her an apprenticeship, but she refuses.
1212"M."John PolsonRobert DohertyJanuary 10, 2013 (2013-01-10)11.48[16]
Sherlock is reunited with "M." (Vinnie Jones) a British serial killer who appears to have followed him to New York; Joan eventually learns that "M" is the one who murdered Sherlock's lover Irene Adler, causing him to spiral into his previous addiction. However, after Sherlock captures "M" and privately interrogates him, he learns that "M" (whose name is Sebastian Moran) is not a serial killer but an assassin, and that he was jailed when Irene was murdered. Moran is on the payroll of a mysterious criminal named Moriarty; therefore, Moriarty killed Irene and pinned the blame on Moran. Holmes vows he will hunt down Moriarty. Meanwhile, Joan has reservations about leaving Sherlock and taking on a new client.
1313"The Red Team"Christine MooreStory by : Jeffrey Paul King & Craig Sweeny
Teleplay by : Jeffrey Paul King
January 31, 2013 (2013-01-31)10.90[17]
After getting suspended by Gregson at the end of the episode "M.", Sherlock decides to spend some time pursuing one of his favorite activities: riling up conspiracy theorists on the internet. When one of the theorists goes missing, Sherlock decides to investigate on his own. After finding that the man was killed in a suspicious hit-and-run accident, Sherlock looks into the victim's conspiracy theories in order to see if he had hit on anything that might have made him a target. While most of the theories are nonsense, Sherlock does find one that seems possible. In 2009, a group of people were hired by the government to devise a terror plot for a war game simulation. In all other cases, these plots were made public after the fact, but the 2009 exercise was kept classified. Now, members of the 2009 "Red Team" have started to show up dead. Fascinated, Sherlock decides to see if the conspiracy theory has merit.
1414"The Deductionist"John PolsonCraig Sweeny & Robert DohertyFebruary 3, 2013 (2013-02-03)20.80[18]
While getting prepped in a hospital for a kidney donation, notorious serial murderer Martin Ennis escapes from custody and resumes killing. Sherlock is brought in to consult, but he bristles when he learns that he must work alongside Kathryn Drummond, the FBI profiler who literally wrote the book on Ennis. She and Sherlock have a past and their association ended when she published an article profiling Sherlock that predicted his forthcoming addiction. Even though Sherlock and Drummond do not get along, they both have a similar idea of what Ennis is likely to do next. The only problem is that the killer is not cooperating and his increasingly erratic behavior has the experts stumped. Meanwhile, Joan faces eviction from her rent-controlled apartment when she learns that the man she has been subletting to during her stay with Holmes has used the place to shoot pornographic films.
1515"A Giant Gun, Filled with Drugs"Guy FerlandStory by : Christopher Silber
Teleplay by : Corinne Brinkerhoff & Liz Friedman
February 7, 2013 (2013-02-07)10.84[19]
Sherlock assists his old friend Rhys in the search for his adult daughter who was abducted from her townhouse by an unknown kidnapper. As Sherlock begins searching for clues, Joan is astonished to learn that Rhys is more than just a former colleague of the detective - he used to be Sherlock's drug dealer. As Sherlock struggles to avoid temptation, the case proves hard to crack. Links to a Dominican drug cartel and the missing girl's stepfather seem to lead nowhere. When Rhys begins to get desperate, he starts to wonder if Sherlock's deductive powers require drugs in order to work properly.
1616"Details"Sanaa HamriStory by : Robert Doherty
Teleplay by : Jeffrey Paul King & Jason Tracey
February 14, 2013 (2013-02-14)10.98[20]
While driving home after a long day, Detective Bell is shot at and forced off the road. He is not able to get a good look at the shooter, but he recognizes the car as belonging to a recently paroled drug lord who had previously vowed to get back at him. Sherlock helps Bell in what he believes will be an open-and-shut case, but things take a turn when the drug lord turns up dead and all evidence points to Bell as the number one suspect. Bell also struggles to reconnect with his brother, an ex-con who wants to use his underworld connections in order to help. Sherlock encourages Joan to learn self-defense, eventually admitting to her that he knows she is no longer his official sober companion. He offers to let her stay on as his partner.
1717"Possibility Two"Seith MannMark GoffmanFebruary 21, 2013 (2013-02-21)11.19[21]
While helping Joan learn deductive skills, Sherlock is approached by Samuel Hagan, a wealthy man suffering from an incurable disease that is destroying his mind. Even though the disease is genetic, Hagan is certain that someone gave it to him as part of a corporate power play. Sherlock is unconvinced and refuses the case. After Hagan kills his driver, however, Sherlock finds himself intrigued enough to take the case. Sherlock begins to believe Hagan when a scientist at a corporate genetics laboratory tells him that giving someone the disease is theoretically possible, but the trail runs cold when she turns up dead. All the evidence, including DNA results, point to the killer being an ex-con unrelated to Sherlock's case. But can it really be that simple? Meanwhile, Sherlock sends Joan on an errand to a suspicious dry cleaning establishment in order to test her ability to solve a case without his help.
1818"Déjà Vu All Over Again"Jerry LevineBrian RodenbeckMarch 14, 2013 (2013-03-14)11.33[22]
Sherlock and Joan are handed a case of a woman who has disappeared. She had left behind only a video addressing her husband and the video reflects on life after the news of a woman killed by an oncoming train. Sherlock thinks this case would suit Joan to start her first solo investigation. Meanwhile, Sherlock starts the investigation of the murdered woman at the railway, where an unidentified male hands her a bouquet of flowers and then comes back to push her off the platform. Joan questions the husband of the disappeared woman and when her instincts tell her he is suspicious, she starts her investigation. Joan follows the husband and when she saw that he possessed a wooden box which he claimed his wife took along with her, breaks into his car. But that does not reveal anything and Joan is arrested by the police. After this failure and remarks from her friends, Joan starts doubting her decision to become a detective, but later she finds evidence that links both cases of the murdered woman at the railway station and the missing woman, whom they now know have both been murdered.
1919"Snow Angels"Andrew BernsteinJason TraceyApril 4, 2013 (2013-04-04)10.48[23]
A security guard is shot dead during a robbery of unreleased mobile phones. Sherlock and Joan work out that the robbery is a smokescreen to steal blueprints and head to New Jersey where to prevent the East Rutherford Operations Center (EROC) from being burglarized during the middle of a snowstorm. They meet a woman named Pam (Becky Ann Baker) who drives the pair around New Jersey in a snowplow. Ms. Hudson (Candis Cayne), an old friend of Sherlock's, is dealing with a break-up and stays in the house with them. The visiting FEMA official helping out with the city's emergency response to the snowstorm is revealed to be involved with the multimillion dollar heist.
2020"Dead Man's Switch"Larry TengStory by : Christopher Silber
Teleplay by : Liz Friedman & Christopher Silber
April 25, 2013 (2013-04-25)10.07[24]
Sherlock's first anniversary of being sober is approaching, an event Joan thinks Sherlock should celebrate. Uninterested in giving the day any special recognition—he finds celebrating the measurement of time as pointless—he spends it doing business as usual as he and Joan hunt for the accomplice of a murdered blackmailer (based on the villain in the Arthur Conan Doyle story "The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton") who targeted families of rape victims.
2121"A Landmark Story"Peter WernerCorinne BrinkerhoffMay 2, 2013 (2013-05-02)9.75[25]
Sherlock is given a hint by Sebastian Moran, a.k.a. "M". He looks into well-disguised murders and catches a serial killer named Daniel Gottlieb (F. Murray Abraham), who was hired by Moriarty's agents. With Gottlieb's help, Sherlock finds the man who hired him who has seen Moriarty, but that man is then murdered. Moran commits suicide, after Moriarty lets him choose between his own death and his sister's death. At the end of the episode, a phone rings; it is Moriarty calling Sherlock.
2222"Risk Management"Adam DavidsonStory by : Liz Friedman & Robert Doherty
Teleplay by : Liz Friedman
May 9, 2013 (2013-05-09)9.29[26]
Moriarty calls Sherlock to have him look into the several-month-old unsolved murder of a mechanic; in exchange, he offers to give Sherlock answers concerning Irene Adler's fate. Sherlock learns the mechanic was surveiled by a private security firm whose founder's sister was killed 20 years ago. The security expert confesses to the mechanic's murder, but Moriarty says the murderer has not been found. Sherlock discovers that the security expert did not see the murderer flee 20 years ago. It was instead his wife who saw the murderer. When her husband's mental health was failing, she convinced him that the lookalike mechanic was the murderer; this revenge stabilized his mental health. It is proven that the mechanic was innocent, having been out of the country at the time of the sister's death. The security expert's wife is also arrested for the mechanic's murder. In payment, Sherlock receives an address and a choice to lead a safe life or find out about Irene. He lies to Joan, who sees through this and joins him. The pair discover a traumatized Irene (Natalie Dormer) in an abandoned house.
2323"The Woman"Seith MannRobert Doherty & Craig SweenyMay 16, 2013 (2013-05-16)8.98[27]
Flashbacks reveal Sherlock's meeting with Irene two years ago and their subsequent relationship, including her "preserving" antique works of art by returning to museums her forgeries of paintings rather than restored originals. Irene was psychologically tortured for the past eighteen months which she believes to have been seven years. Sherlock decides to send Irene away to keep her safe but she counters that they go together. He agrees but then notices a mole is missing from Irene's back and concludes it was removed to avoid it turning cancerous-which Moriarty would not care about, unless she was working for Moriarty. Berating him for not trusting her, Irene storms out. One of Moriarty's agents discovers he is to be killed, but defeats his assassins and returns to kill Sherlock (in defiance of Moriarty's orders). The agent wounds Sherlock and reveals to him that Moriarty is a woman. Before Sherlock can be shot a second time the agent is shot and killed by Irene, who now talks with a British accent. Sherlock then realizes she is Moriarty.
2424"Heroine"John PolsonRobert Doherty & Craig SweenyMay 16, 2013 (2013-05-16)8.98[27]
Moriarty reveals that she faked her murder to distract Sherlock from interfering with her plans, though she did not anticipate his drug overdose. She asks him to let her win and then he can have the USA to himself. Sherlock uncovers her plan to have the father (Arnold Vosloo) of a woman she has kidnapped murder a man associated with the Macedonian naming dispute in order to make one billion dollars trading in currency. He fails to stop the murders, however and vents his rage against Joan and Captain Gregson. Sherlock overdoses on drugs and Moriarty visits him in the hospital. She confesses to her part in the murder and invites him to leave the country with her and she will heal him. Sherlock reveals Joan analysed Moriarty's behavior and concluded that she was, in fact, in love with Sherlock and thus would return to him; they relied on Moriarty's agents to witness his wild behavior and let her think she had won. He then reveals that the overdose was faked and Moriarty is arrested, Sherlock having recorded their conversation.

Season 2 (2013–14)[edit]

No.
overall
No. in
season
TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air dateU.S. viewers
(millions)
251"Step Nine"John PolsonRobert Doherty & Craig SweenySeptember 26, 2013 (2013-09-26)10.18[28]
Sherlock receives a call from Scotland Yard about a missing inspector, Gareth Lestrade, who worked with Sherlock. Sherlock and Joan travel to London, where Sherlock easily locates Lestrade at a bar and agrees to help solve the case that caused Lestrade to be suspended. Attempting to prove a rich man killed his wife, Sherlock, Joan and Lestrade pour over evidence. Refrigerated milk leads them to visit the suspect's house where Sherlock discovers a chipped nail, leading him to the conclusion that the gun was printed using plastic and melted in acetone. Tracking 3D printer purchases leads them to the body of the suspect's handyman, and plastic fragments found on the scene prove Sherlock's hypothesis that the man printed a gun to kill his wife and killed the handyman to clean up loose ends. Meanwhile, Sherlock is shocked to discover his brother, Mycroft, has moved into his old place at 221B Baker Street. Mycroft is interested in how Joan became Sherlock's friend and tells Joan he wants to make amends with Sherlock. Mycroft uses a homemade bomb to destroy Sherlock's belongings and get his attention.
262"Solve for X"Jerry LevineJeffrey Paul KingOctober 3, 2013 (2013-10-03)9.38[29]
Sherlock and Joan investigate the murder of a mathematician whose walls are painted with a complex formula. A colleague of Sherlock’s reveals the formula is a nearly unsolvable problem, and directs them to a professor, Tanya, who had written about the formula. Tanya points them to a suspect, but he has been murdered. Sherlock realizes the second victim was under surveillance and tracks down the man responsible. He tells Sherlock the value of the completed formula - a skeleton key to bypass any encryption - and directs them back at Tanya, but she provides a video recording of her alibi. Sherlock confronts Tanya with evidence that she manipulated the footage because she already solved the problem and killed the two victims because they were getting close. Meanwhile, Joan meets with the son of the patient she lost during surgery and he asks her for money.
273"We Are Everyone"Michael PressmanCraig SweenyOctober 10, 2013 (2013-10-10)9.06[30]
After leaking secrets, a government operative, Ezra, is on the run and a mysterious man hires Sherlock and Joan to locate him. Questioning the mysterious man's motives leads Sherlock to learn that he is part of an organization gunning for Ezra. Connecting Ezra with "Everyone," a group of cyber-activists, Sherlock discovers the identity of the girl harboring Ezra, but they find her dead at her apartment and know Ezra killer her. Sherlock steals a guard's phone, but "Everyone" traces it to Sherlock and Joan and wreak havoc on their digital lives. Sherlock catches up to Ezra as he tries to leave the country on a plane owned by a member of "Everyone." Ezra reveals he can expose US spies throughout the globe and is forced to let him go. Sherlock comes up with a plan to capture Ezra and keep the identities of the spies a secret. Meanwhile, Joan signs up for an online dating site and uses the opportunity to chastise Sherlock for his lack of meaningful relationships.
284"Poison Pen"Andrew BernsteinLiz FriedmanOctober 17, 2013 (2013-10-17)8.52[31]
Sherlock investigates a case of a very wealthy man who was poisoned. During the case he runs into an old friend, Abigail Spencer, under the name Ann Barker. Abigail turns out to be a former convicted murderer, though acquitted of her charges as a young girl. Abigail was beaten by her father and shortly after he was found dead. Abigail and Sherlock, at age 15, exchanged letters and from here is where Sherlock realized who he was. The case comes to heed and the son of the victim was the one who did it, though, just like Abigail, he was sexually assaulted by his father so he planned to kill him and frame Abigail. In the end, Abigail takes the fall for the murder to protect him and finally pay for her sins. Sherlock offers his ear to help the young man cope with what he has been through and also to keep an eye on him.
295"Ancient History"Sanaa HamriJason TraceyOctober 24, 2013 (2013-10-24)8.72[32]
At the morgue searching for a case, Sherlock discovers one of the bodies, Leo Banin, is a former assassin who killed someone the day he died. Sherlock and Joan go looking for his victim. After looking into business associates and a loan shark, all of whom are still alive, they go back to the accident scene. At the scene, Sherlock and Joan find the body of his victim, another mobster. They uncover bullet casings that indicate that Leo was being shot at and that is what caused the traffic accident. Finally, Sherlock reveals that it was Leo's wife who alerted the mobsters to his location and aided in their plan to kill him and, in the end, was forced to pick up the gun herself. Meanwhile, Joan helps a friend find a one-night stand that turns out to have been Sherlock.
306"An Unnatural Arrangement"Christine MooreCathryn HumphrisOctober 31, 2013 (2013-10-31)9.47[33]
A home intruder, who is after Gregson, is shot by his wife. Sherlock and Joan investigate who could be targeting Gregson. Two more victims, including Gregson's neighbor, are discovered murdered and Sherlock realizes the killer went to the wrong house and is not after Gregson. Tying the victims to their service in Afghanistan guarding an archaeological site, Sherlock questions an archaeologist and quickly deduces that she was stealing from her digs and is now killing her accomplices with the help of her ex-husband. In the process of the investigation, Gregson must reveal that he and his wife have separated. Meanwhile, Joan is frustrated with Sherlock after he solves a case she was asked to consult on. Sherlock gives her access to his box of unsolved cases.
317"The Marchioness"Sanaa HamriChristopher Hollier & Craig SweenyNovember 7, 2013 (2013-11-07)8.89[34]
Mycroft arrives in New York City, where he is opening a restaurant. He brings his ex-fiancee, Nigella - whom Sherlock slept with - to ask if he and Watson could solve a case for her. During the course of the investigation two things are revealed; the first being that Joan and Mycroft slept together when they were in London and have not since talked about it and the second being that Nigella is as rotten as she was when she and Mycroft were engaged. Sherlock takes the news of Joan and Mycroft sleeping together quite well, despite the mocking and embarrassing questions he asks. The investigation leads them through a web of horse breeding and drug cartels. Sherlock proves that Nigella was conning many people out of thousands of dollars to keep herself afloat after a nasty divorce. Myrcoft and Sherlock promise not to turn her in as long as she pays back the money she lied to people to get. In the end, Sherlock and Mycroft make amends and become closer as brothers.
328"Blood Is Thicker"John PolsonBob GoodmanNovember 14, 2013 (2013-11-14)8.54[35]
The NYPD investigates the death of Haley Tyler, who was stabbed before she fell off of a balcony and landed on a truck. Haley was the apparent mistress of technology mogul Ian Gale (William Sadler), whom Sherlock and Joan are unable to locate until they learn that he is dying and in need of a transplant. Gale reveals to them that Haley was not his mistress, but rather his illegitimate daughter as a result of a one-night stand during his early years of success. Evidence points to Gale's wife (Margaret Colin) due to an inheritance agreement to Haley, as well as medical precision used during the murder - however, Mrs. Gale's arguments during an interrogation are valid and she informs Watson that she arranged the inheritance agreement herself. The detectives locate Haley's former boyfriend, and though the man is innocent, he informs them that Haley was suffering from a illness. Ian Gale dies, prompting Sherlock, Joan and the NYPD to confront Mrs. Gale at her home with the murder of both Haley and her husband: she injected Haley with a poisonous medicine that would also poison Ian during the resulting transfusion and Haley was killed to remove loose ends. In a subplot, Mycroft, who plans to return to London soon, proposes to Sherlock that he come along, as their father apparently desires it. Sherlock shares this with Joan and takes time to contemplate it, even favoring it at one point, but ultimately decides against it with a letter he gives to Mycroft to pass on to their father. However, Mycroft shreds the letter, implying that he lied to Sherlock and wants him out of New York for other reasons.
339"On the Line"Guy FerlandJason TraceyNovember 21, 2013 (2013-11-21)9.24[36]
A young woman, Samantha Wabash, commits suicide by shooting herself while on a bridge, staging her death to look like murder in order to implicate Lucas Bundsch as her killer. Samantha believes that Lucas is responsible for her sister’s death and that by framing him for her own "murder" the police will arrest him. Her plan fails when Sherlock easily deduces that her death was a suicide. Lucas is exonerated further still when he manages to pass a polygraph test. What started out as one woman's desperate attempt to get justice for her murdered sister quickly escalates into a battle of wits with a serial killer who has managed to stay under the radar for years.
3410"Tremors"Aaron LipstadtLiz FriedmanDecember 5, 2013 (2013-12-05)8.29[37]
In a typical day at the police station, a schizophrenic man wanders in with a gun and Sherlock manages to defuse the situation by noticing a scarf on the man's wrist and playing along with his delusions. The story is being told by Sherlock in a hearing. Bell is shot, protecting Holmes, by a man whom Holmes annoyed during an investigation. Sherlock and Joan are now to testify at a hearing formed to recommend whether or not the pair should be kept on as consultants to the NYPD. Bell ultimately saves their careers but, resentful of Holmes, refuses to talk to him.
3511"Internal Audit"Jerry LevineBob GoodmanDecember 12, 2013 (2013-12-12)9.09[38]
A hedge fund manager who ran a Ponzi scheme is killed moments before committing suicide. The woman who finds the body is a former sober client of Joan's. She refuses to allow Joan to reveal their relationship, hindering the investigation when her former drug dealer becomes the main suspect. Sherlock and Joan prove that the hedge fund manager was turning over evidence to a reporter that contained information about another crime and he was killed to stop that information from becoming public. Meanwhile, Alfredo tries to get Sherlock to become a sponsor because of his guilt over Bell's shooting. Bell is offered a position with the Demographics Unit.
3612"The Diabolical Kind"Larry TengRobert Doherty & Craig SweenyJanuary 2, 2014 (2014-01-02)9.04[39]
When Sherlock deduces that a former henchman of Moriarty's is behind a child kidnapping, Moriarty is brought in, with electroshock restraints, to help track down the kidnappers. Joan can see Sherlock is still struggling with his conflicting feelings for Moriarty, but is also annoyed they have been discussing Joan's love life in their letters. It is discovered that Moriarty's agent has gone rogue and that the child in question is actually Moriarty's daughter. After disabling her restraints, escaping and killing all her daughter's abductors, a badly injured Moriarty allows Sherlock to take her back into custody, predicting she will be free soon. Sherlock realizes that she may have started to redeem herself.
3713"All in the Family"Andrew BernsteinJason TraceyJanuary 9, 2014 (2014-01-09)9.97[40]
An assignment with the Diagnostics Unit leads Bell to discover a body in a barrel. Joan identifies the victim as a member of a Mafia family who had been in hiding and identifies a member of a rival family as the potential killer. Sherlock and Joan go to his house, but he dies in a car explosion. Paperwork at the scene leads Sherlock to believe someone in the government had supplied the killer with information about his victim's whereabouts and Sherlock's suspicions are validated when he and Joan visit an NSA front. Sherlock figures out that Bell's new boss, Da Silva, is dirty and Bell discovers evidence linking Da Silva to the mafia family. They take Da Silva down. Meanwhile, to win back Bell's friendship, Sherlock shares personal details about his life. Bell rejoins Major Crimes.
3814"Dead Clade Walking"Helen ShaverJeffrey Paul KingJanuary 30, 2014 (2014-01-30)10.34[41]
While investigating one of Sherlock's cold cases, Joan discovers an out-of-place rock in the garden of a murder victim. Joan enlists a geologist to study the rock and they learn it houses a complete dinosaur fossil. The rock is later stolen from the police evidence room. Tracking down a known smuggler, Sherlock and Joan discover the smuggler murdered and the fossil destroyed. They eventually expose the curator of a natural history museum committed the murders to hide the proof of a scientific theory that would have cost him and his mentor their legacies. Meanwhile, Sherlock has his hands full as a sponsor when Randy's addict girlfriend turns back up in his life.
3915"Corpse de Ballet"Jean de SegonzacLiz FriedmanFebruary 6, 2014 (2014-02-06)9.45[42]
The murder of a ballerina is investigated by Sherlock and Joan and evidence seems stacked against the dance company's star performer, Iris. An audio recording released to the tabloids reveals Iris' intimate relationship to the victim, but Sherlock deconstructs the recording and deduces that Iris' lawyer was the murderer and was trying to use the impending trial against Iris as a way to elevate his firm's reputation. The police find a stolen hard drive with surveillance footage at the lawyer's home which was the missing evidence to charge the lawyer. Meanwhile, Joan looks into a missing homeless man, prompting her to open up to Sherlock about her biological father who is schizophrenic and lives on the street. Joan locates the missing homeless man and uncovers a plot to kidnap homeless people for their benefit checks.
4016"The One Percent Solution"Guy FerlandStory by : Bob Goodman & Craig Sweeny
Teleplay by : Craig Sweeny
February 27, 2014 (2014-02-27)8.66[43]
Sherlock and Joan are called to investigate a bombing at a restaurant that targeted finance executives and government officials. On the case, they are reunited and forced to work with Gareth Lestrade, who is now consulting for one of the CEOs involved in the case. Videotape from the hotel attached to the restaurant leads Sherlock and Joan to suspect that Lestrade is covering up his boss's involvement. We learn that the CEO is being targeted by a blackmailer who was one of many to whom he offered indecent proposals in the past and that Lestrade has been helping him make the offers. The CEO is forced to reveal his involvement in order to catch the blackmailing bomber. Lestrade loses his job and comes to stay with Sherlock and Joan.
4117"Ears to You"Seith MannLauren MacKenzie & Andrew GettensMarch 6, 2014 (2014-03-06)8.54[44]
A man named Gordon Cushing, whose wife disappeared in 2010, receives two severed human ears along with a ransom note. The ear DNA matches that of Cushing's wife, Sarah. At the ransom exchange, Cushing pursues the suspect and accidentally kills him. Clues on the suspects body lead Sherlock and Joan to an AA meeting, where they find Sarah, who is both alive and not earless. Sarah says that the DNA they collected when she disappeared was not hers and belongs to her husband's mistress, who, as it turns out, died in 2011. Sherlock realizes that Sarah's new plastic surgeon husband grew two exact replicas of her ears on Sarah's back and then cut them off in an elaborate attempt to collect ransom from Cushing. Meanwhile, Lestrade is mugged and Joan encourages him to solve his own case to improve his spirits.
4218"The Hound of the Cancer Cells"Michael SlovisBob GoodmanMarch 13, 2014 (2014-03-13)8.94[45]
Sherlock and Joan investigate the death by helium asphyxiation of a researcher who had been testing the "hound", a breathalyzer for detecting cancer. Bell, recovered from his injury and returned to field duty, asks Joan to track down a missing witness to a street killing. The episode title references the Arthur Conan Doyle novel The Hound of the Baskervilles, which was later adapted in season four.
4319"The Many Mouths of Aaron Colville"Larry TengJason TraceyApril 3, 2014 (2014-04-03)7.83[46]
When a dead serial killer arises, it takes Sherlock and Joan on a trail of eight possible suspects, all with the same set of bite marks. Our duo discovers that the teeth of the dead killer, Aaron, was a mold for the dentures, thus having the exact bite mark. Joan has a connection with the murders as she was a part of the operating team that she could have done to save him thinking that he was innocent. However, it is proven that he was indeed guilty and his mother was using a set of his dentures to try to prove his innocence.
4420"No Lack of Void"Sanaa HamriLiz Friedman & Jeffrey Paul KingApril 10, 2014 (2014-04-10)7.90[47]
Sherlock and Joan track a lethal toxin's origin when a pickpocket dies of anthrax poisoning. When it is discovered that it was done by an anti-government group known as the Sovereign Army, they begin to track down a man who has the motive. When he turns up dead after his brother shot him, it turns out that the brother was trying to kill off their herd of cows for $2.8 million. Sherlock's close friend Alistair suddenly dies, which catches Holmes off guard. Sherlock then begins to try to cope with the loss by acting out of character, causing Joan to go into sober companion mode and making Sherlock talk about it. After it gets out that Alistair died of a heroin overdose, Sherlock struggles even more. Eventually, Sherlock confesses to Alistair at his grave that he loved him dearly and will miss him.
4521"The Man with the Twisted Lip"Seith MannStory by : Steve Gottfried
Teleplay by : Craig Sweeny & Steve Gottfried
April 24, 2014 (2014-04-24)8.13[48]
Sherlock and Joan investigate the disappearance of Paige, the sister of a woman who frequents Sherlock's sobriety meetings. Upon arrival at the brownstone, they are surprised by Mycroft, who has returned to New York, apparently to focus on his Diogenes restaurant chain. They have dinner with him, and the following day, he proposes a relationship with Joan. While taking time to consider it, Joan meets with Sherlock at a park he found based on a clue in one of Paige's songs. Upon investigation, the pair find not one, but two bodies, one being Paige's and the other of a man, Zach Piller, who they learn manufactured UAVs for a company called McCarthy-Strauss. Sherlock visits Mycroft at Diogenes to discuss Joan, but notices a shady-looking man at a corner table who frequents the restaurant. Sherlock later identifies this man as one Guillaume de Soto, a high-ranking member of a French drug cartel and gang called Le Milieu. He captures an insect-like drone that was spying on him in the brownstone, realizing that the two victims were killed by the drones Zach Piller manufactured. They learn from Piller's psychiatrist that he accidentally massacred ten undercover CIA agents in Afghanistan and subsequently wrote a report on it out of guilt. During the interrogating, the psychiatrist is poisoned by another drone. Formulating a plan to incriminate McCarthy-Strauss, Sherlock waits at a pier to meet with the business executive that Piller's report belongs to while Joan breaks into the executive's office and steals the report. She calls the executive and reads the report out to him, incriminating him. That night, Joan, who has taken interest in investigating Le Milieu, follows de Soto's contact (Henri Lubatti) outside Diogenes after he receives an envelope. She retrieves the envelope but finds a picture of herself inside, right before the contact renders Joan unconscious by knocking her out with chloroform and kidnapping her.
4622"Paint It Black"Lucy LiuRobert Hewitt WolfeMay 1, 2014 (2014-05-01)7.79[49]
Shortly after Joan is kidnapped, Mycroft receives a call from the kidnapper and informs Sherlock of the situation, which enrages him. Mycroft explains to a disgusted Sherlock that Le Milieu offered him money to open up a Diogenes restaurant in New York to serve as their headquarters, followed by a series of requests. The two learn of one Pierce Norman, a Swiss bank executive who plans to sell a list of thousands of the bank executives' names and information to the black market. They investigate the bank and also learn that the NSA is on to Norman, with Sherlock intent on getting to him first. Norman's boyfriend points them to a remote home his lover owned, but the Holmes brothers find Norman's corpse buried in the yard. Mycroft is distraught until Sherlock finds an insect pupa, which he knows had to have grown over the course of eight days. He realizes that Norman was killed before the list was downloaded and was framed. That night, they track down the real perpetrator, Norman's head of security Kurt Yoder (Michael Gaston). Yoder is interrogated that night at the brownstone and eventually tells them of the hard drive the list is on. After recovering it, Sherlock decides to call the NSA, fearing that Le Milieu will betray them, but Mycroft, who is under orders from an unnamed British contact, incapacitates Sherlock with a taser and heads out to meet with the dealers, while the NSA later refuses Sherlock's requests to save Joan. Mycroft, meanwhile, gives Yoder and the list to the dealers, but de Soto orders them killed. Mycroft suddenly calls in paramilitary forces, who gun down the dealers, including de Soto. He apologizes to a shocked Joan and says that they have a lot to talk about.
4723"Art in the Blood"Guy FerlandBob GoodmanMay 8, 2014 (2014-05-08)7.54[50]
Sherlock returns home to find Joan safe, and Mycroft reveals that he is working for MI6. The brothers have a talk, in which Mycroft discloses that MI6 utilized his observational skills to investigate criminal groups such as Le Milieu, and that his handler wanted Sherlock out of New York. The two then meet with the handler, Tim Sherrington (Ralph Brown), who employs Sherlock with a murder case involving one Arthur West, an undercover MI6 analyst. West's body in the morgue is shown to have the arms severed and stolen. The two visit West's wife, Marion (Emily Bergl) and learn that she is a tattoo artist; Sherlock later deduces that West's arms were tattooed using invisible ink, thus providing motive for someone to steal them. Joan, meanwhile, angrily rejects Mycroft for his deception. Marion visits the brownstone to inform Sherlock that she was aware of West's activities, which West divulged out of paranoia and reassurance of his sanity to her, given that he was diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Showing them photos of West's arms tattooed with numbers, Marion explains that West was confident of a mole working within MI6, communicating with one Julian Afkhami, a local bookstore owner. Joan later tells Sherlock she plans to move out of the brownstone, which Sherlock dismisses as a mere emotional repercussion following her kidnapping. The following morning, Sherrington meets with Sherlock at a park and eventually offers him a job at MI6. Marion, meanwhile, tells Joan about one "Sudomo Han", who Joan visits Mycroft to ask about. She is shocked to learn that Mycroft joined MI6 to protect his brother, who unwittingly made himself Han's associate, not knowing that Han was a terrorist. Moved, she kisses Mycroft and the two eventually have sex. Elsewhere, Sherlock learns from the NYPD that the gun used to kill West led to untraceable fingerprints bearing a distinctive scar. Immediately identifying the prints as Mycroft's, Sherlock visits his brother's home to inform him that he is being framed as the mole.
4824"The Grand Experiment"John PolsonRobert Doherty & Craig SweenyMay 15, 2014 (2014-05-15)7.37[51]
Sherlock informs Mycroft that he is being framed as the mole and relocates him and Joan to a vacant, remote library accessible only to Sherlock. While he stalls MI6 with fraudulent "updates", Sherlock continues his investigation into Arthur West. Sherlock and Joan discover that West's arm tattoos signified dates, times and locations mapping out the mole's whereabouts and present their evidence to Mycroft, who notices that he was in every listed location at the corresponding dates and times. Realizing he is being framed because the mole was in the same places as Mycroft, Joan names Mycroft's handler Sherrington as the mole; they decide to keep it quiet until the time is right. Sherrington, however, visits Joan at the brownstone to confront her, but Joan, who is keeping members of the hacktivist group "Everyone" on a video chat in order to incriminate him, calls it a draw and sends him away. In the meantime, Sherlock learns that Sherrington made seventeen calls to his contact, Iranian Julian Afkhami, feeding information to the Iranian government. Joan confronts Sherlock about Sudomo Han and his history with Mycroft, which Sherlock brings to his brother as a means for forgiveness. Sherlock and Joan investigate a murder believed to be linked to Afkhami and incriminate him to the NYPD, presenting evidence that he stoned his wife's lover to death, and get him arrested. Mycroft visits Sherrington at a restaurant and learns from Sherrington that he betrayed MI6 because of a lack of promotions or respect. Shortly afterwards, the NYPD finds Sherrington's corpse, which Sherlock confronts Mycroft about at the brownstone. Mycroft informs him and Watson that he made a deal with the NSA for them to kill Sherrington and fake Mycroft's own death, thus making him disappear to protect him from Le Milieu. Joan is deeply saddened while Mycroft emotionally apologizes to an unmoved Sherlock. While Joan makes plans to move into a new apartment, Sherlock visits MI6 to tell them he is willing to enlist in the organization.

Season 3 (2014–15)[edit]

No.
overall
No. in
season
TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air dateU.S. viewers
(millions)
491"Enough Nemesis to Go Around"John PolsonRobert Doherty & Craig SweenyOctober 30, 2014 (2014-10-30)7.57[52]
Six months after Joan has moved out, she is running her own investigation firm and helps bust female drug kingpin Elana March (Gina Gershon). Two months later, the case has gone stagnant and the key witness in the prosecution of the kingpin is murdered in a secure hotel elevator. To her surprise, Joan discovers Sherlock has returned with a new protégée named Kitty Winter (Ophelia Lovibond), and is working on the case as well after being fired from MI6. Joan realizes Kitty works with Sherlock after defeating her in a singlestick confrontation. The three must find a way to get along and work together while finding the murderer, a skilled hit man (Brennan Brown).
502"The Five Orange Pipz"Larry TengBob GoodmanNovember 6, 2014 (2014-11-06)7.07[53]
A double murder appears to be revenge for the deaths of children poisoned by toy beads made with GHB. The father of one of the children confesses, but Sherlock deduces that the confession is false. Evidence against the maker of the beads has gone missing, which complicates understanding of the motivation for the crime. Kitty feels sidelined watching Sherlock and Joan unravel the mystery. The title of this episode is a reference to "The Five Orange Pips" by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
513"Just a Regular Irregular"Jerry LevineRobert Hewitt WolfeNovember 13, 2014 (2014-11-13)6.53[54]
Mathematician Harlan Emple (Rich Sommer, "Solve for X") comes across a dead body packed in mothballs while participating in a "math hunt", a number game with a puzzle involving Belphegor's prime. When another body is found, it is believed that the game is intended to be a death trap for mathematicians. Meanwhile, Joan tries to convince Kitty, who was a rape victim, to join a support group.
524"Bella"Guy FerlandCraig SweenyNovember 20, 2014 (2014-11-20)6.49[55]
Software developer Edwin Borstein has created an artificial intelligence program called Bella, and he hires Sherlock because someone has broken into his company and made a copy of the program. Sherlock solves the theft case, but then Borstein dies from a fatal epileptic seizure, seemingly caused by Bella. Meanwhile, Joan's boyfriend Andrew receives a job offer that would take him to Copenhagen, and Joan wonders if Sherlock is responsible for it.
535"Rip Off"John PolsonJason TraceyNovember 27, 2014 (2014-11-27)6.11[56]
Sherlock and Kitty are called in when a severed hand is found in the street; this leads them into a case involving smuggled diamonds and murder. Also, Sherlock has Kitty sign a non-disclosure agreement because he had discovered that Joan had written (but not published) a book titled The Casebook of Sherlock Holmes. Meanwhile, tensions are high between Gregson and his police officer daughter Hannah because he had punched a male officer who had hit her.
546"Terra Pericolosa"Aaron LipstadtStory by : Bob Goodman & Jeffrey Paul King
Teleplay by : Bob Goodman
December 4, 2014 (2014-12-04)6.59[57]
Shortly after coming to the scene of a cartographic murder, Sherlock, Joan and Kitty uncover a plot to misconstrue border lines that affect the viability of a billion-dollar casino, envisioned by billionaire real estate mogul William Hull (Skipp Sudduth). Meanwhile, Joan is troubled by Sherlock’s meddling with Kitty’s growing personal life.
557"The Adventure of the Nutmeg Concoction"Christine MoorePeter OckoDecember 11, 2014 (2014-12-11)7.63[58]
Joan meets with a new client whose sister disappeared five years ago. Sherlock discovers that Jessica had three keys which lead them to Noah Kramer, a lawyer she was having an affair with. He says he was working out of state when she disappeared. Sherlock discovers that Kramer told her that his client, Raymond Carpenter, was guilty of several murders and she was going to tell the police. Sherlock and Joan meet with Raymond Carpenter in Sing Sing. He admits Kramer told him about Jessica and he outsourced her murder, but the killer is dead. They find a new crime scene with the scent of nutmeg, as well as sodium hydroxide. The murders are committed by different individuals but connected by The Cleaner. Joan reviews records from Spaulding Technical Institute, looking for people who were certified in cleaning up crime scenes. Sherlock's plan gets a response, but then he met with the "cleaner" and it turned out he was an undercover cop. Conrad Woodbine is their cleaner. Woodbine refuses to identify any of his clients. Sherlock has Kitty dissemble the crime board. As she does, she finds a picture of Raymond Carpenter and the superintendent from Woodbine's apartment is in it. Joan and Sherlock meet with Carpenter again. His youngest son was Woodbine's apprentice and killed him on his father's orders. They tell Carpenter if he calls his son and tells him to work with the police, they will make sure he is safe. Otherwise, when other criminals find out about him, he will never be safe again.
568"End of Watch"Ron FortunatoRobert Hewitt WolfeDecember 18, 2014 (2014-12-18)7.57[59]
Sherlock, Joan and Kitty investigate the murder of a Highway Patrol officer, whose sidearm has been replaced with an airsoft gun, and uncover a connection to a wanted arms dealer. Meanwhile, Sherlock looks for the person posting his personal statements made in sobriety meetings on a recovery blog.
579"The Eternity Injection"Larry TengCraig SweenyJanuary 8, 2015 (2015-01-08)8.60[60]
When a nurse Joan used to work with asks for her help finding their missing acquaintance, the woman's trail leads Sherlock and Joan to another person who has disappeared. Further investigation uncovers evidence of an ongoing illegal drug trial of a novel substance known as EZM-77. Despite his recovery sponsor Alfredo's concerns, Sherlock struggles with his sobriety, finding the recovery process monotonous ("the incessant drip-drip-drip of existence", as he calls it).
5810"Seed Money"John PolsonBrian RodenbeckJanuary 15, 2015 (2015-01-15)8.09[61]

Sean Justin Penn (born August 17, 1960)[1] is an American actor, filmmaker, and political activist. He has won two Academy Awards, for his roles in the mystery drama Mystic River (2003) and the biopic Milk (2008).

Penn began his acting career in television with a brief appearance in episode 112 of Little House on the Prairie (December 4, 1974), directed by his father Leo Penn. Following his film debut in the drama Taps (1981) and a diverse range of film roles in the 1980s, including Fast Times at Ridgemont High (1982), Penn garnered critical attention for his roles in the crime dramas At Close Range (1986), State of Grace (1990), and Carlito's Way (1993). He became known as a prominent leading actor with the drama Dead Man Walking (1995), for which he earned his first Academy Award nomination and the Best Actor Award at the Berlin Film Festival. Penn received another two Oscar nominations for Woody Allen's comedy-drama Sweet and Lowdown (1999) and the drama I Am Sam (2001), before winning his first Academy Award for Best Actor in 2003 for Mystic River and a second one in 2008 for Milk. He has also won a Best Actor Award of the Cannes Film Festival for the Nick Cassavetes-directed She's So Lovely (1997), and two Best Actor Awards at the Venice Film Festival for the indie film Hurlyburly (1998) and the drama 21 Grams (2003).

Penn made his feature film directorial debut with The Indian Runner (1991), followed by the drama film The Crossing Guard (1995) and the mystery film The Pledge (2001). Penn directed one of the 11 segments of 11'09"01 September 11 (2002), a compilation film made in response to the September 11 attacks. His fourth feature film, the biographical drama survival movie Into the Wild (2007), garnered critical acclaim and two Academy Award nominations.

In addition to his film work, Penn is known for his political and social activism, including his criticism of the George W. Bush administration, his contact with the Presidents of Cuba and Venezuela, and his humanitarian work in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina (2005) and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In January 2016, Penn published an interview (conducted in October 2015) with Mexican drug lord Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán in Rolling Stone.[2] Mexican authorities dismissed the level of importance given by American media to Penn in regard to Guzman's eventual recapture, instead placing importance on actress Kate del Castillo's continued communications with Guzman.[3]

Early life

Penn was born in Los Angeles County, California,[4] to actor and director Leo Penn, and actress Eileen Ryan (née Annucci). His older brother is musician Michael Penn. His younger brother, actor Chris Penn, died in 2006. His paternal grandparents were Ashkenazi Jewish emigrants from Lithuania and Russia,[5][6][7] while his mother is a Catholic of Irish and Italian descent.[7][8] Penn was raised in a secular home[5] and attended Santa Monica High School.[9] He began making short films with some of his childhood friends, including actors Emilio Estevez and Charlie Sheen, who lived near his home.[10]

Career

Acting

Penn appeared in a 1974 episode of the Little House on the Prairie television series as an extra when his father, Leo, directed some of the episodes. Penn launched his film career with the action-drama Taps (1981), where he played a military high school cadet.[10] A year later, he appeared in the hit comedy Fast Times at Ridgemont High (1982), in the role of surfer-stoner Jeff Spicoli; his character helped popularize the word "dude" in popular culture.[10] Next, Penn appeared as Mick O'Brien, a troubled youth, in the drama Bad Boys (1983).[10] The role earned Penn favorable reviews and jump-started his career as a serious actor.

Penn played Andrew Daulton Lee in the film The Falcon and the Snowman (1985), which closely followed an actual criminal case.[10] Lee was a former drug dealer by trade, convicted of espionage for the Soviet Union and originally sentenced to life in prison, but was paroled in 1998. Penn later hired Lee as his personal assistant, partly because he wanted to reward Lee for allowing him to play Lee in the film; Penn was also a firm believer in rehabilitation and thought Lee should be successfully reintegrated into society, since he was a free man again.[11]

Penn starred in the drama At Close Range (1986) which received critical acclaim.[10] He stopped acting for a few years in the early 1990s, having been dissatisfied with the industry, and focused on making his directing debut.[10]

The Academy Awards first recognized his work in nominating him for playing a racist murderer on death row in the drama film Dead Man Walking (1995). He was nominated again for his comedic performance as an egotistical jazz guitarist in the film Sweet and Lowdown (1999). He received his third nomination after portraying a mentally handicapped father in I am Sam (2001). Penn finally won for his role in the Boston crime-drama Mystic River (2003). In 2004, Penn played Samuel Bicke, a character based on Samuel Byck, who in 1974 attempted and failed to assassinate President Richard Nixon, in The Assassination of Richard Nixon (2004). The same year, he was invited to join the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.[12] Next, Penn portrayed governor Willie Stark (based on Huey Long) in an adaptation of Robert Penn Warren's classic 1946 American novel All the King's Men (2006). The film was a critical and commercial failure, named by a 2010 Forbes article as the biggest flop in the last five years.[13]

In November 2008, Penn earned positive reviews for his portrayal of real-life gay-rights icon and politician Harvey Milk in the biopic Milk (2008), and was nominated for best actor for the 2008 Independent Spirit Awards.[14] The film also earned Penn his fifth nomination and second win for the Academy Award for Best Actor. Penn starred as Joseph C. Wilson in Fair Game (2010), a film adaptation of Valerie Plame's 2007 memoir. He co-starred in the drama The Tree of Life (2011), which won the Palme d'Or at the 2011 Cannes Film Festival. In 2015, Penn starred in The Gunman, a French-American action thriller based on the novel The Prone Gunman, by Jean-Patrick Manchette. Jasmine Trinca, Idris Elba, Ray Winstone, Mark Rylance and fellow Oscar-winner Javier Bardem appear in supporting roles. Penn plays Jim Terrier, a sniper on a mercenary assassination team who kills the minister of mines of the Congo.

Directing

Penn made his directorial debut with The Indian Runner (1991), a crime drama film based on Bruce Springsteen's song "Highway Patrolman", from the album Nebraska (1982).[10] He also directed music videos, such as Shania Twain's "Dance with the One That Brought You" (1993), Lyle Lovett's "North Dakota" (1993), and Peter Gabriel's "The Barry Williams Show" (2002). He has since directed three more films, all well received by critics: the indie thriller The Crossing Guard (1995), the mystery film The Pledge (2001), and the biographical drama survival film Into the Wild (2007).[15] Penn's fifth directorial feature The Last Face (2016) premiered at the 2016 Cannes Film Festival.

Personal life

Penn was engaged to actress Elizabeth McGovern, his co-star in Racing with the Moon (1984).

He met pop singer Madonna in February 1985,[16] and they married that August on her birthday. The two starred in the panned and much-derided Shanghai Surprise (1986), directed by Jim Goddard, and Madonna dedicated her third studio album True Blue (1986) to Penn, referring to him in the liner notes as "the coolest guy in the universe".[17] The relationship was marred by violent outbursts against the press, including one incident when Penn was arrested for assaulting a photographer on a film set; Penn was sentenced to 60 days in jail in mid-1987, of which he served 33 days.[18] Madonna filed for divorce in December 1987[16] but later withdrew the papers, only to file them again in January 1989. Madonna reportedly filed an assault complaint that she was beaten in her Malibu, California home by her estranged husband, but in January 1989, the Associated Press reported that she had "dropped assault charges."[19] Penn was alleged to have struck Madonna on multiple occasions, but in 2015 Madonna stated the allegations were "completely outrageous, malicious, reckless, and false”.[20][21][22]

At the end of his first marriage, Penn moved in with actress Robin Wright, and their first child, a daughter named Dylan Frances, was born April 13, 1991.[23] Their second child, son Hopper Jack, was born August 6, 1993.[24]

Penn and Wright separated in 1995, during which time he developed a relationship with Jewel, after he spotted her performing on Late Night with Conan O'Brien. He invited her to compose a song for his film The Crossing Guard (1995) and followed her on tour.[25]

Penn and Wright reconciled, married on April 27, 1996, and lived in Ross, California.[1][26] The couple filed for divorce in December 2007 but reconciled several months later, requesting a court dismissal of their divorce case.[27]

In April 2009, Penn filed for legal separation, only to withdraw the case once again when the couple reconciled in May.[28][29][30] On August 12, 2009, Wright Penn filed for divorce again.[31][32] The couple's divorce was finalized on July 22, 2010; the couple reached a private agreement on child and spousal support, division of assets, and custody of Hopper, who was almost 17 at the time.[33]

In December 2013, Penn began dating actress Charlize Theron. The two announced their engagement in December 2014. Theron ended their relationship in June 2015.[34]

Political views and activism

Penn has been outspoken in supporting numerous political and social causes. On December 13–16, 2002, he visited Iraq to protest the Bush Administration's apparent plans for a military strike on Iraq. On June 10, 2005, Penn made a visit to Iran. Acting as a journalist on an assignment for the San Francisco Chronicle, he attended a Friday prayer at Tehran University.[35] On January 7, 2006, Penn was a special guest at the Progressive Democrats of America, where he was joined by author and media critic Norman Solomon, Democratic congressional candidate Charles Brown, and activist Cindy Sheehan. The "Out of Iraq Forum", which took place in Sacramento, California, was organized to promote the anti-war movement calling for an end to the War in Iraq.[36]

On December 18, 2006, Penn received the Christopher Reeve First Amendment Award from the Creative Coalition for his commitment to free speech.[37] In August 2008, Penn made an appearance at one of Ralph Nader's "Open the Debates" Super Rallies. He protested the political exclusion of Nader and other third parties.[38] In October 2008, Penn traveled to Cuba, where he met with and interviewed President Raúl Castro.[39] In February 2012, he stood beside Hugo Chávez while Venezuela supported the Syrian government during the 2011–2012 Syrian uprising.[40]

On October 18, 2002, Penn placed a US$56,000 advertisement in the Washington Post asking then PresidentGeorge W. Bush to end a cycle of violence. It was written as an open letter and referred to the planned attack on Iraq and the War on Terror.[41]

In the letter, Penn also criticized the Bush administration for its "deconstruction of civil liberties" and its "simplistic and inflammatory view of good and evil."[42] Penn visited Iraq briefly in December 2002.[41] "Sean is one of the few," remarked his ex-wife Madonna. "Good for him. Most celebrities are keeping their heads down. Nobody wants to be unpopular. But then Americans, by and large, are pretty ignorant of what's going on in the world."[43] The Post advertisement was cited as a primary reason for the development of his relationship with Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez. In one of his televised speeches, Chávez used and read aloud an open letter Penn wrote to Bush.[44] The letter condemned the Iraq War, called for Bush to be impeached, and also called Bush, Vice President Dick Cheney, and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice "villainously and criminally obscene people."

On April 19, 2007, Penn appeared on The Colbert Report and had a "Meta-Free-Phor-All" versus Stephen Colbert that was judged by Robert Pinsky. This stemmed from some of Penn's criticisms of Bush. His exact quote was "We cower as you point your fingers telling us to support our troops. You and the smarmy pundits in your pocket– those who bathe in the moisture of your soiled and blood-soaked underwear– can take that noise and shove it."[45][46] He won the contest with 10,000,000 points to Colbert's 1.[47] On December 7, 2007, Penn said he supported Ohio Congressman Dennis J. Kucinich for U.S. President in 2008, and criticized Bush's handling of the Iraq war. Penn questioned whether Bush's twin daughters supported the war in Iraq.[48]

Hurricane Katrina

In September 2005, Penn traveled to New Orleans, Louisiana, to aid HurricaneKatrina victims. He was physically involved in rescuing people,[49] although there was criticism that his involvement was a PR stunt as he hired a photographer to come along with his entourage.[50] Penn denied such accusations in an article he wrote for The Huffington Post.[51] Director Spike Lee interviewed Penn for Lee's documentary about Hurricane Katrina, When the Levees Broke: A Requiem in Four Acts (2006).

Support for same-sex marriage

On February 22, 2009, Penn received the Academy Award for Best Actor for the film Milk. In his acceptance speech, he said: "I think that it is a good time for those who voted for the ban against gay marriage to sit and reflect and anticipate their great shame and the shame in their grandchildren's eyes if they continue that way of support. We've got to have equal rights for everyone!"[52]

Relief efforts following 2010 Haiti earthquake

After the 2010 Haiti earthquake, Penn founded the J/P Haitian Relief Organization,[53] which has been running a 55,000 person tent camp.[54] Due to his visibility as an on-the-ground advocate for rescue and aid efforts in the aftermath, Penn was designated by president Michel Martelly as Ambassador-at-Large for Haiti, the first time that a non-Haitian citizen has been designated as such in the country's history. Penn received the designation on January 31, 2012.[55]

Pakistan

Penn gained significant attention in the Pakistan media when he visited Karachi and Badin in 2012. On March 23, 2012, he visited flood-stricken villages of Karim Bux Jamali, Dargah Shah Gurio and Peero Lashari in Badin District. He was accompanied by US Consul General Willian J. Martin and distributed blankets, quilts, kitchen items and other goods amongst flood survivors.[56][57]

On March 24, 2012, Penn also visited Bilquis Edhi Female Child Home and met Pakistan’s iconic humanitarian worker Abdul Sattar Edhi and his wife, Bilquis Edhi. He also laid floral wreaths and paid respect at the shrine of Abdullah Shah Ghazi.[58][59]

Release of Jacob Ostreicher from Bolivian prison

Penn is believed to have played a role in getting American entrepreneur Jacob Ostreicher released from a Bolivian prison in 2013, and was credited by Ostreicher for having personally nursed him back to health upon his release.[60]

Controversies

Defense of Hugo Chávez

In March 2010, Penn called for the arrest of those referring to Venezuelan PresidentHugo Chávez as a dictator.[61] The two were friends, and when Chávez died, Penn said: "Venezuela and its revolution will endure under the proven leadership of Vice President(Nicolás) Maduro. Today the United States lost a friend it never knew it had. And poor people around the world lost a champion. I lost a friend I was blessed to have."[62]

Falkland Islands controversy

In February 2012, Penn met with the President of Argentina, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, in Buenos Aires where he made a statement on the long-running dispute between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands, saying: "I know I came in a very sensitive moment in terms of diplomacy between Argentina and the UK over the Falkland Islands. And I hope that diplomats can establish true dialogue in order to solve the conflict as the world today cannot tolerate ridiculous demonstrations of colonialism. The way of dialogue is the only way to achieve a better solution for both nations."[63][64][65]

The comments were taken as support of Argentina's claim to the islands and evoked strong reactions in the British media, with one satirical article in The Daily Telegraph requesting that Penn "return his Malibu estate to the Mexicans".[66] Lauren Collins of The New Yorker wrote: "As of today, Sean Penn is the new Karl Lagerfeld—the man upon whom, having disrespected something dear to the United Kingdom, the British papers most gleefully pile contempt".[67]

Penn later claimed that he had been misrepresented by the British press and that his criticism of "colonialism" was a reference to the deployment of Prince William as an air-sea rescue pilot, describing it as a "message of pre-emptive intimidation". He claimed that the Prince's posting meant "the automatic deployment of warships", and stated: "My oh my, aren't people sensitive to the word 'colonialism', particularly those who implement colonialism."[68][69] In a piece written in The Guardian, Penn wrote that "the legalisation of Argentinian immigration to the Malvinas/Falkland Islands is one that it seems might have been addressed, but for the speculative discovery of booming offshore oil in the surrounding seas this past year". He further wrote that "irresponsible journalism" had suggested "that I had taken a specific position against those currently residing in the Malvinas/Falkland Islands, that they should either be deported or absorbed into Argentine rule. I neither said, nor insinuated that".[69][70]

Oscar green card joke

At the 87th Academy Awards, Penn presented the award for Best Picture. Before presenting the award to Mexican Alejandro González Iñárritu for Birdman, Penn joked, "Who gave this son of a bitch his green card?"

His remark caused some people to be offended by the comments, deeming them racist towards Latin Americans, and offensive to those who attempt to legally immigrate into the United States.[71][72]

Iñarritu said that it was a joke between him and Penn, who worked together on 21 Grams, and that he found it "hilarious." Penn later went on record defending his comments, saying, "I have absolutely no apologies. In fact, I have a big 'fuck you' for every...anybody who is so stupid not to have gotten the irony when you've got a country that is so xenophobic. If they had their way, you wouldn't have great filmmakers like Alejandro working in this country. Thank God we do."[73][74]

Lee Daniels lawsuit

In an interview published September 16, 2015, director and showrunner Lee Daniels responded to criticism about Terrence Howard's continued career in light of his domestic violence issues by referencing Penn's rumored history of domestic violence, saying: "[Terrence] ain't done nothing different than Marlon Brando or Sean Penn, and all of a sudden he's some f—in' demon."[75] In response, Penn launched a $10 million defamation suit against Daniels, alleging that he had never been arrested for or charged with domestic violence.[76] Penn dropped the lawsuit in May 2016 after Daniels retracted his statement and apologized.[77]

El Chapo interview

A day after Mexican officials announced the capture of Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán in a bloody raid, Rolling Stone revealed on January 9, 2016 that Sean Penn, along with actress Kate del Castillo, had conducted a secret interview with El Chapo prior to his arrest.[78][79] Del Castillo was contacted by Guzmán's lawyer (who was under CISEN surveillance) to talk about producing a biographical film over Guzmán and communication increased following Guzmán's escape from prison in July 2015.[80] The deal for the interview was brokered by del Castillo.[81] According to published text messages with del Castillo, Guzmán did not know who Sean Penn was.[82] CISEN released photographs of del Castillo at the meetings with Guzmán's lawyers and of the arrival of the actress and Penn to Mexico.

The interview was criticized by some, including the White House, which called the interview "maddening".[83] Mexican authorities said they were seeking to question Penn over the interview, which had not been approved by either the American or Mexican government.[84] Penn and del Castillo's meeting with Guzmán is under investigation by the Attorney General of Mexico.[3]

Filmography

Main article: Sean Penn filmography

Penn has appeared in more than 50 films and won many awards during his career as an actor and director. He has won two Academy Awards for Best Actor for Mystic River (2003) and Milk (2008), and was nominated three more times in the same category for Dead Man Walking (1995), Sweet and Lowdown (1999), and I Am Sam (2001). He also received a Directors Guild of America nomination for directing Into the Wild (2007).

References

  1. ^ ab"Sean Penn Biography (1960-)". FilmReference.com. Retrieved January 13, 2014.  
  2. ^Somaiya, Ravi (January 9, 2016). "Sean Penn Sat for Secret Interview With 'El Chapo,' Mexican Drug Lord". The New York Times. Retrieved January 9, 2016. 
  3. ^ abLoret de Moda, Carlos. "'Hermosa', el nombre clave de Kate". El Universal. Retrieved January 13, 2016. 
  4. ^"California Births, 1905–1995". Familytreelegends.com. August 17, 1960. Retrieved January 23, 2009. 
  5. ^ abJews Flop in Big Oscar Award Wins. Jewish Journal.com. March 5, 2004.
  6. ^Sean Penn Genealogy.
  7. ^ abKelly, Richard T. (2004). Sean Penn: His Life and Times. Canongate Books. pp. 9–10. ISBN 1-84195-623-6. 
  8. ^According to Penn's mother, his father may have had distant Sephardic Jewish ancestry, as his family's surname was originally "Piñón".
  9. ^Abramowitz, Rachel (January 6, 2002). "Don't Get Him Started". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 23, 2010. 
  10. ^ abcdefghStated on Inside the Actors Studio, 1999
  11. ^When Sean's having fun, it's hard to imagine having more fun. The Guardian. April 8, 2005.
  12. ^"Academy Invites 127 to Membership" (Press release). Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. June 28, 2004. Archived from the original on June 30, 2004. 
  13. ^Pomerantz, Dorothy. Hollywood's Biggest Flops: Big-name stars weren't enough to save these box-office bombs, Forbes, January 22, 2010.
  14. ^Maxwell, Erin (December 3, 2008). "Spirit Award nominees announced". work. Retrieved January 23, 2009. 
  15. ^Sean Penn film directorial venture reviews:
  16. ^ abJoanne Kaufman (December 14, 1987). Everyone Said It Wouldn't Last...And It Didn't. After Two Years of Marriage, Madonna and Sean Penn Go Their Separate Ways. People.
  17. ^"Madonna's love history". The Daily Telegraph. UK. October 15, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2011. 
  18. ^Ciccone, Christopher (2008). Life with My Sister Madonna, Simon & Schuster, pp. 144–50; ISBN 1-4165-8762-4.
  19. ^"The Incident Behind Those Sean Penn Domestic Abuse Allegations". Retrieved 2017-12-02. 
  20. ^Pisani, Louisa (March 14, 2015). "Why would anyone want to date Sean Penn?". New York Post. Retrieved August 18, 2015. 
  21. ^"Madonna Says Sean Penn 'Never Struck Me', Backs Ex In $10M Lee Daniels Defamation Suit". Deadline. December 17, 2015. Retrieved June 1, 2016. 
  22. ^"After Years of Silence, Madonna Denies Allegations That Ex-Husband Sean Penn Beat Her Up". December 19, 2015. 
  23. ^MacMinn, Aleene (April 17, 1991). "Cradle Watch". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  
  24. ^Speidel, Maria (August 23, 1993). "Passages". People. Archived from the original on March 16, 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2017. 
  25. ^Schillaci, Sophie. "Jewel Reveals Pre-Fame Relationship With Sean Penn: 'I Liked His Mind'". Retrieved September 23, 2015. 
  26. ^Storey, Kate (September 30, 2013). "Penn kids ready to break out". New York Post. Retrieved January 18, 2014. 
  27. ^White, Nicholas (December 27, 2007). "Sean Penn and Robin Wright Penn Divorcing". People. Retrieved September 16, 2009. 
  28. ^"Sean Penn Files for Legal Separation". People. April 29, 2009. Retrieved September 16, 2009. 
  29. ^Reaney, Patricia (April 9, 2008). "Sean Penn, wife Robin end divorce proceeding". Reuters. 
  30. ^"Sean Penn withdraws separation filing". USA Today. May 21, 2009. 
  31. ^Lee, Ken (August 18, 2009). "Robin Wright Penn Files for Divorce". People. Retrieved September 16, 2009. 
  32. ^Silverman, Stephen M. (August 17, 2009). "Robin Wright Penn Relishes Her New Independence". People. Retrieved September 16, 2009. 
  33. ^Oh, Eunice (August 4, 2010). "Sean Penn and Robin Wright Finalize Their Divorce". People. Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  34. ^Lee, Esther. "Sean Penn, Charlize Theron Split, Break Off Engagement: Breakup Details". Retrieved August 15, 2015. 
  35. ^Penn, Sean. Sean Penn in Iran. San Francisco Chronicle. August 23, 2005.
  36. ^Associated Press; Hindery, Robin (August 14, 2016). "Challenger lashes out at Doolittle, calls him 'coward'". The East Bay Times. Retrieved February 1, 2018. 
  37. ^The Creative Coalition Announces Presenters for 2006 Christopher Reeve First Amendment Award and 2006 Spotlight AwardsArchived April 22, 2007, at Archive.is. The Creative Coalition. December 2006.
  38. ^"Sean Penn, Val Kilmer, Tom Morello, Cindy Sheehan at Nader/Gonzalez Super Rally in Denver — Ralph Nader for President in 2008". Votenader.org. August 19, 2008. Retrieved January 23, 2009. 
  39. ^Lacey, Marc (November 26, 2008). "Sean Penn Interviews Raúl Castro". The New York Times. Retrieved January 23, 2009. 
  40. ^"Exclusive: Venezuela ships fuel to war-torn Syria". Reuters. February 16, 2012. Retrieved February 17, 2012. 
  41. ^ abBowles, Scott (September 18, 2006). Sean Penn plays politics. USA Today.
  42. ^"Sean Penn Letter to Washington Post". Snopes. Retrieved January 23, 2009. 
  43. ^Rees, Paul: 'Listen very carefully, I will say this only once', Q, May 2003, pp84-92
  44. ^Somaiya, Ravi (October 14, 2007). "Sean Penn: Mr Congeniality". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved February 12, 2012. 
  45. ^"Sean Penn Unloads on Pres. Bush". Fox News Channel. March 27, 2007. 
  46. ^"Metaphor Alert". New York Post. March 27, 2007. Archived from the original on February 25, 2008. 
  47. ^"Stephen Colbert vs Sean Penn". Crooks and Liars. March 27, 2007. 
  48. ^An Open Letter to the President...Four and a Half Years LaterHuffPost. March 24, 2007.
  49. ^Many celebrities have helped with New Orleans recovery efforts. International Herald Tribune. December 14, 2007.
  50. ^Penn's rescue attempt springs a leak. The Sydney Morning Herald. September 5, 2005.
  51. ^Penn, Sean (November 30, 2008). "Mountain of Snakes". HuffPost. Retrieved November 28, 2010. 
  52. ^Post Reply (February 22, 2009).

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