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When reviewing everything about the Civil War, one of the things that you need to review is the Emancipation Proclamation APUSH topics. Here are some things that you should know about it for the exam:
What Is the Emancipation Proclamation?
The Emancipation Proclamation, issued by President Abraham Lincoln, states “that all persons held as slaves” within the Confederate states “are, and henceforth shall be free”.
When Did the Emancipation Proclamation Take Place?
After the Union won the Battle of Antietam in September 1862, Lincoln warned the Confederate states that he would issue the Emancipation Proclamation if they did not surrender and rejoin the Union. They didn’t, and the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect January 1, 1863.
Why Is the Emancipation Proclamation Important?
One of the biggest drawbacks to the Emancipation Proclamation is that it didn’t actually free any slaves. It only freed slaves in the rebellious states, and Lincoln didn’t have authority over these states.
However, some of the positive things that came from the Emancipation Proclamation are:
- It changed the purpose of the war. Winning the war would become a moral victory, where a new union without slavery could be created.
- Europeans withdrew their support from the South.
- The Union could recruit African Americans as Union soldiers. (Many people thought that slaves were supporting the rebellious states in the war by taking care of their .)
- It became the preliminary step toward the 13th Amendment, which was ratified on December 6, 1865.
- More African Americans went north in pursuit of their freedom.
The People Involved
President Abraham Lincoln is the most important person to know in regards to the Emancipation Proclamation. He said, “If my name ever goes into history, it will be for this act…”
The Events Surrounding the Emancipation Proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation was issued in the 3rd year of the Civil War. President Lincoln wanted to issue it much sooner, but he was urged to wait until after a big Union victory. Finally, the Battle of Antietam was that victory.
Practice APUSH Questions
- What was the immediate effect of the Emancipation Proclamation?
- News of the proclamation angered the slave-owning border states, so they joined the Confederacy during the Civil War.
- The Emancipation Proclamation shifted the purpose of the war to the morality of slavery.
- When Lincoln issues it, the soldiers’ morale decreased, making it difficult to recruit new soldiers for the war.
- The Emancipation Proclamation freed all the slaves in the Northern and Southern states.
Answer: 2. After issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, the war was no longer about restoring the Union. Instead, there was a moral war against slavery. People wanted a new Union where slavery did not exist.
- Which of the following statements is NOT accurate about the Emancipation Proclamation?
- The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in the rebellious and border states.
- The Union created African American units in the Army and Navy.
- Because it was believed that slaves were helping the Confederates, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation to free the slaves.
- It created a moral cause that the Union army could stand behind.
Answer: 1. The Emancipation Proclamation did not free slaves in the border states; Lincoln didn’t want to alienate the border states by forcing them to free the slaves that lived there.
- DBQ Question: In what ways did African Americans shape the Civil War?
- Because of the Emancipation Proclamation, eliminating slavery became the moral objective of the war.
- African Americans worked to get to the Union states where they enlisted in the army, which tipped the scales for the Union army.
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The Emancipation Proclamation is arguably one of the top ten most important documents in the history of the United States; however, it is also one of the most misunderstood. Here are ten facts providing the basics on the proclamation and the history surrounding it.
Fact #1: Lincoln actually issued the Emancipation Proclamation twice.
Abraham Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 22nd, 1862. It stipulated that if the Southern states did not cease their rebellion by January 1st, 1863, then Proclamation would go into effect. When the Confederacy did not yield, Lincoln issued the final Emancipation Proclamation on January 1st, 1863.
Fact #2: The Emancipation Proclamation only applied to the states in rebellion.
President Lincoln justified the Emancipation Proclamation as a war measure intended to cripple the Confederacy. Being careful to respect the limits of his authority, Lincoln applied the Emancipation Proclamation only to the Southern states in rebellion.
Fact #3: Lincoln’s advisors did not initially support the Emancipation Proclamation.
When President Lincoln first proposed the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet in the summer of 1862, many of the cabinet secretaries were apathetic, or worse, worried that the Proclamation was too radical. It was only Lincoln’s firm commitment to the necessity and justice of the Proclamation, along with the victory at Antietam, which finally persuaded his cabinet members to support him.
Fact #4: The Battle of Antietam (also known as Sharpsburg) provided the necessary Union victory to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
President Lincoln had first proposed the Emancipation Proclamation to his Cabinet in July 1862, but Secretary of State William Seward suggested waiting for a Union victory so that the government could prove that it could enforce the Proclamation. Although the Battle of Antietam resulted in a draw, the Union army was able to drive the Confederates out of Maryland – enough of a “victory,” that Lincoln felt comfortable issuing the Emancipation just five days later.
Fact #5: The Emancipation Proclamation was a firm demonstration of the President’s executive war powers.
The Southern states used slaves to support their armies on the field and to manage the home front so more men could go off to fight. In a display of his political genius, President Lincoln shrewdly justified the Emancipation Proclamation as a “fit and necessary war measure” in order to cripple the Confederacy’s use of slaves in the war effort. Lincoln also declared that the Proclamation would be enforced under his power as Commander-in-Chief, and that the freedom of the slaves would be maintained by the “Executive government of the United States.”
Fact #6: The Emancipation Proclamation changed the focus of the war.
Up until September 1862, the main focus of the war had been to preserve the Union. With the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation freedom for slaves now became a legitimate war aim.
Fact #7: The Emancipation Proclamation helped prevent the involvement of foreign nations in the Civil War.
Britain and France had considered supporting the Confederacy in order to expand their influence in the Western Hemisphere. However, many Europeans were against slavery. Although some in the United Kingdom saw the Emancipation Proclamation as overly limited and reckless, Lincoln's directive reinforced the shift of the international political mood against intervention while the Union victory at Antietam further disturbed those who didn't want to intervene on the side of a lost cause.
Fact #8: The Emancipation Proclamation paved the way for African-Americans to fight for their freedom.
Lincoln declared in the Proclamation that African-Americans of “suitable condition, would be received into the armed service of the United States.” Five months after the Proclamation took effect; the War Department of the United States issued General Orders No. 143, establishing the United States Colored Troops (USCT). By the end of the war, over 200,000 African-Americans would serve in the Union army and navy.
Fact #9: The Emancipation Proclamation led the way to total abolition of slavery in the United States.
With the Emancipation Proclamation, the aim of the war changed to include the freeing of slaves in addition to preserving the Union. Although the Proclamation initially freed only the slaves in the rebellious states, by the end of the war the Proclamation had influenced and prepared citizens to advocate and accept abolition for all slaves in both the North and South. The 13th Amendment, which abolished slavery in the United States, was passed on December 6th, 1865.
Fact #10: Lincoln considered the Emancipation Proclamation the crowning achievement of his presidency.
Heralded as the savior of the Union, President Lincoln actually considered the Emancipation Proclamation to be the most important aspect of his legacy. “I never, in my life, felt more certain that I was doing right, than I do in signing this paper,” he declared. “If my name ever goes into history it will be for this act, and my whole soul is in it."