Research has shown that marijuana’s negative effects on attention, memory, and learning can last for days or weeks after the acute effects of the drug wear off, depending on the person’s history with the drug.53 Consequently, someone who smokes marijuana daily may be functioning at a reduced intellectual level most or all of the time. Considerable evidence suggests that students who smoke marijuana have poorer educational outcomes than their nonsmoking peers. For example, a review of 48 relevant studies found marijuana use to be associated with reduced educational attainment (i.e., reduced chances of graduating).54 A recent analysis using data from three large studies in Australia and New Zealand found that adolescents who used marijuana regularly were significantly less likely than their non-using peers to finish high school or obtain a degree. They also had a much higher chance of developing dependence, using other drugs, and attempting suicide.55 Several studies have also linked heavy marijuana use to lower income, greater welfare dependence, unemployment, criminal behavior, and lower life satisfaction.56,57
To what degree marijuana use is directly causal in these associations remains an open question requiring further research. It is possible that other factors independently predispose people to both marijuana use and various negative life outcomes such as school dropout.58 That said, people report a perceived influence of their marijuana use on poor outcomes on a variety of life satisfaction and achievement measures. One study, for example, compared people involved with current and former long-term, heavy use of marijuana with a control group who reported smoking marijuana at least once in their lives but not more than 50 times.59 All participants had similar education and income backgrounds, but significant differences were found in their educational attainment: Fewer of those who engaged in heavy cannabis use completed college, and more had yearly household incomes of less than $30,000. When asked how marijuana affected their cognitive abilities, career achievements, social lives, and physical and mental health, the majority of those who used heavily reported that marijuana had negative effects in all these areas of their lives.
Studies have also suggested specific links between marijuana use and adverse consequences in the workplace, such as increased risk for injury or accidents.60 One study among postal workers found that employees who tested positive for marijuana on a pre-employment urine drug test had 55 percent more industrial accidents, 85 percent more injuries, and 75 percent greater absenteeism compared with those who tested negative for marijuana use.61
Show MoreTo many, marijuana is seen as a horrible narcotic that causes many physical and social problems. To others, it's a harmless drug that gives the body a relaxing sensation. Marijuana can be found on many college campuses and high schools. It is estimated that at least 70 million Americans have tried it, and of those people, 10-14% become dependent of the drug (1). Marijuana is often referred to as the "gateway" drug, leading the user to more serious narcotics. Marijuana users experience different sensations, from excessive mellowness, fuzzy memory, to the munchies. Some of the typical effects are impairment of memory, alteration of memory, motor coordination, posture, cognitive ability, and sensory perception. So what is it in marijuana…show more content…
The receptors are coupled with G-proteins and mediate the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity, which in turn reduce the production of cyclic AMP, cAMP. The reduction of cAMP formation blocks calcium ion flow into the cells, which would disrupt the formation of action potentials. This may attribute to some of the side effects to marijuana use (4). Cyclic AMP and calcium ions regulate several neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine and dopamine (1). This may account for the nice and mellow feeling people experience when smoking pot.
The precise physiopathological responses between the stimulation and inactivation of endocannabinoid receptors are still unclear, however, it is known that the performance of the nervous system and the peripheral processes, such as modulation of neurotransmitters, control of immune, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and cardiovascular systems are impacted. By observing the actions of the CB1 receptor, researchers are able to determine different response pathways. The actions of the CB1 receptors interact with thermoregulatory systems in the body. CB1 receptors also interact with sensory perception such as hearing, color vision, and touch. Motor responses are also affected by CB1 receptors, some motor responses being movement, coordination, posture, and muscle function. THC has a high affinity to CB1 receptors, which may account for the different sensations when one gets "high. Often times, a person under the influence of